The experiments were
carried out by Monsanto researchers on three strains
of GM maize. Two of the varieties contained genes
for the Bt protein which protects the plant against
the corn borer pest, while a third was genetically
modified to be resistant to the weed killer
glyphosate. All three strains are widely grown in
America, while one is the only GM crop grown in
Europe, mostly in Spain.
Monsanto only released the raw data after a legal
challenge from Greenpeace, the Swedish Board of
Agriculture, and French anti-GM campaigners.
Seralini concluded that rats which ate the GM maize
had ' statistically significant' signs of liver and
kidney damage. Each strain was linked to unusual
concentrations of hormones in the blood and urine of
rats fed the maize for three months, compared to
rats given a non-GM diet.
higher hormone levels suggest that animals' livers
and kidneys are not working properly.
Female rats fed one of the strains also had higher
blood sugar levels and raised levels of fatty
substances caused triglycerides, Dr Seralini
reported in the International Journal of
analysis concluded: "These substances have never
before been an integral part of the human or animal
diet and therefore their health consequences for
those who consume them, especially over long time
periods, are currently unknown."
Monsanto claimed the analysis of its data was "based
on faulty analytical methods and reasoning, and does
not call into question the safety findings for these